1) My personal favorite is Soupbox on 2943 Broadway St or there's one on Chicago/Rush St. This soup emporium offers about a dozen kind of soups made fresh daily and the ability to personalize with your own mixes
2) The Bagel - 3107 N Broadway St. Sit down at this restaurant you have the best pairings with your matzo ball, dumpling, cabbage or soup of the day. This is truly an authentic deli. If you can't get down with that, another favorite of mine Stella's is across the street.
3) Where can you get the best French onion soup in Chicago? I think the answer is Bistro 110 on 110 E. Pearson. This place has the best French onion soup I've ever had!
4) If you are looking for some variety downtown, go to Foodlife in Water Tower Place. They have great daily offerings that change daily!
5) Whole foods. This store does great soups to go. Buy a container and bring it home! My favorites are tomato bisque, new england clam chowder, and butternut squash!